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Julius L. Chambers Papers

Filing title: 
Chambers (Julius L.) Papers

Julius L. Chambers papers
MS0085

Summary Information

Repository
J. Murrey Atkins Library Special Collections, UNC Charlotte
Creator
Chambers, Julius L. (Julius LeVonne), 1936-
Title
Julius L. Chambers papers
ID
MS0085
Date [bulk]
Bulk, 1965-1975
Date [inclusive]
1902-1989
Extent
9.0 Linear feet
General Physical Description note
(ca. 16,200 items)
Language
English
Abstract
Files of a Charlotte attorney and his firm, Chambers, Stein, Ferguson, and Lanning, relating to their representation of the plaintiffs in the landmark case, Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, that established busing as a constitutional method for desegregating schools. Includes pleadings prepared by Chambers and by attorneys for the Board of Education at the district, circuit, and supreme court levels; court rulings and opinions; research materials; statistics; desegregation plans prepared by the board and court consultant John Finger; transcripts of proceedings; and depositions, briefs, and notes.

Preferred Citation note

Julius L. Chambers Papers. J. Murrey Atkins Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Charlotte.

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Biographical/Historical note

Historical Note: The U.S. Supreme Court's 1954-55 rulings on the Brown v. Board of Education forbade perpetuation of "separate but equal" dual public educational systems and required their subsequent desegregation. Many states tried to circumvent Brown by passing placement laws that superficially desegregated schools while allowing local boards to maintain segregated systems. In North Carolina, the General Assembly passed the Pupil Placement Act (1955). In Charlotte, token integration occurred in 1957, when a few black students were assigned to three white schools. In 1962, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education adopted a plan of nonracial geographic assignment. The plan granted students freedom of transfer from an area of black concentration and closed some all black schools. With the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Board faced a loss of federal funding unless the 1962 plan was revised to comply with federal policy on non discrimination. As the Board began drawing up new plans, the class action suit, James E. Swann, et al v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education, was brought against the Board in January, 1965, charging that the Board maintained a segregated system. The suit originated when Darius Swann, professor of theology at Johnson C. Smith University, requested that his son James be allowed to attend the predominantly white school near their home instead of the predominantly black school some distance away. When the Board denied his request, his case and several similar ones were taken to the courts as a class action suit by the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund through the services of Charlotte civil rights attorney Julius Chambers. The suit was brought before the U.S. District Court, where Judge J. Braxton Craven Jr. approved the Board's new plans for the 1965-66 school year. The plaintiffs appealed the case to the Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, where Judge Clement Haynsworth upheld the District Court's ruling. The plaintiffs reopened the case in September, 1968, filing for further desegregation of the schools. Appointed to hear the case in the District Court was James B. McMillan Jr. Attorneys for the defendants were Brock Barkley, William J. Waggoner (see William J. Waggoner Papers), and Benjamin S. Horack (see Benjamin S. Horack Papers). In April, 1969, McMillan ruled that there still existed a dual system in which schools were racially identifiable; that discriminatory property laws, the "freedom of choice" clause, gerrymandering of district lines, and the "neighborhood school" theory were perpetrating segregated schools; and that achievement scores of blacks in black schools were unacceptably low. In June, 1969, the Board submitted a plan that closed some black inner city schools and reassigned these pupils, along with other black students, to white schools. In August, 1969, the court approved the implementation of this plan for the 1969-70 year but ordered the Board to prepare by November a plan for desegregation according to balanced racial ratios. The Board's plan, submitted November 17, 1969, was not accepted by the Court because it continued to focus on freedom of choice and rezoning. In December, McMillan laid out specific guidelines for the preparation of plans that would desegregate the schools. Dr. John A. Finger, an educational consultant from Rhode Island College, was hired and instructed to prepare a plan that would reach, to the extent possible and using all available means, a 71:29 ratio of whites to blacks in all schools. The Board also prepared desegregation plans. Both Finger and the Board prepared separate plans for each level: high school, junior high, and elementary. Both sets of plans were submitted to the Court in February, 1970. Finger's plan relied substantially on busing. McMillan subsequently rejected the Board's plans and ordered the implementation of Finger's plans. Concurrently, as the central issue was in the courts, supplementary suits were also developing. In June, 1969, the North Carolina General Assembly passed an anti busing statute. When the Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education was ordered in February, 1970 to begin busing, the North Carolina Board of Education and several individuals, among them Mrs. Robert E. Moore and Tom B. Harris, sued the Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education and William Self, superintendent of the Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools. The cases, decided in Mecklenburg County Superior Court, enforced a temporary restraining order based on the use of public funds for busing in the desegregation plan and ruled such uses conflict with the anti busing statute. The Swann plaintiffs moved to add these individuals and the state as additional parties defendant to prevent them from interfering with federal court mandates. In March, 1970, McMillan ordered that a three judge court convene to rule on the anti busing statute. The three judge court, presided over by Circuit Court judges J. Braxton Craven and John Butzner, and McMillan, District judge, ruled the anti busing statute unconstitutional. The North Carolina State Board of Education and the additional parties appealed the case to the Supreme Court. Meanwhile, the central Swann case was on appeal in the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. The case was heard en banc by Judges John D. Butzner, Clement E. Haynsworth, Simon E. Sobeloff, Harrison L. Winter, Albert V. Bryan, and Herbert S. Boreman. Judge Craven disqualified himself because he had ruled on the case when it was in the District Court in 1965. On May 26, 1970, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, approving most of the Finger plan dealing with the junior and senior high schools, rejected a part applying to elementary schools that provided for additional busing of several thousand elementary school children to achieve a racial balance in schools that would otherwise be predominantly black or white. (See memorandum, Legal Defense Fund staff to "Our Contributors," 10/7/70, Series 2.) The basis for the judges' ruling was the opinion that every school does not need to be integrated under a unitary system, particularly when such integration would require extreme cross busing, and that the primary consideration to be applied in deciding local cases is the "test of reasonableness." The elementary plan was remanded back to the District Court for redrafting, and McMillan ordered that the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare assist in the preparation of new elementary school plans. When the case was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, the issue was whether school boards were required to use all available means to achieve integration. The Board of Education also filed a motion to stay the implementation of the Finger and HEW plans for the 1970-71 school year. The Supreme Court agreed to hear the case in October, 1970, but refused to stay the District Court's order. Instead, on June 29, 1970, following hearings in the Court to modify the elementary plan, the Supreme Court mandated that the orders of the District Court be reinstated for the 1970-71 school year for all grade levels. As such, mass busing of students began that year. In April, 1971, the Supreme Court ruled that the Finger Plan was a constitutional method for desegregating high school, junior high, and elementary level grades, thus upholding the District Court's original ruling of February, 1970. The implications of the decision were that all available means must be used to desegregate the schools and that busing as a means to achieve racial desegregation is constitutional. Following the Supreme Court's decision, the District Court was charged with ensuring that adequate desegregation plans continued to be implemented in the Charlotte Mecklenburg schools. The District Court oversaw this process until 1975, when the case was officially closed. [For further information, consult: Davison M. Douglas, Reading, Writing & Race: the Desegregation of the Charlotte Schools (1995); Frye Gaillard, The Dream Long Deferred (1988); Lino A. Graglia, Disaster by Decree: The Supreme Court Decisions on Race and the Schools (1976); George R. Metcalf, From Little Rock to Boston: The History of School Desegregation (1983); and Bernard Schwartz, Swann's Way: The School Busing Case and the Supreme Court (1986).]

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Biographical/Historical note

Biographical Note: Julius LeVonne Chambers, African American civil rights lawyer, was born in Mount Gilead, N.C., in 1935. As a schoolboy, Chambers was bused several miles past the nearby white school to attend a black school. Chambers was graduated from North Carolina College (now North Carolina Central University) in 1958 with a B.A. in history and the University of Michigan, where he received an M.A. in history as a Woodrow Wilson Fellow. He studied law as a John Hay Whitney Fellow at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. During his final year he served as the first black editor of the North Carolina Law Review. He was the first black admitted to the Order of the Golden Fleece, UNC CH's highest honorary society. He then received a Master of Law at Columbia University Law School. He worked a year for the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund before establishing a practice in Charlotte in 1964. In 1967 Chambers joined with Adam Stein to form the first biracial law firm in North Carolina. His firm represented many civil rights cases, including the Charlotte Three (see T. J. Reddy Papers) and the Wilmington 10. Chambers was the victim of racial violence in 1965 when his car and home were bombed (including the homes of Reginald A. Hawkins, Fred D. Alexander, and Kelly M. Alexander, Sr.), and in February, 1971, when his Charlotte law office was burned. In 1968 Chambers was appointed by North Carolina Governor Dan Moore to serve as one of twenty five to study possible changes in the state constitution. He was appointed to the first board of governors of the state university system. He has served as president of the Southern Regional Council and as national president of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund. He served on the steering committee for the 1972, 1976, and 1980 Democratic Party presidential campaigns. In 1992, Chambers was named chancellor of North Carolina Central University in Durham.

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Scope and Contents note

These papers contain documents presented to the courts, transcripts of proceedings, briefs, research material and statistical data, handwritten notes, desegregation plans, correspondence, and other information documenting the case's progression through the District, Circuit, and Supreme courts, and the resulting decision by the Supreme Court in 1971 that all available means, including busing, must be used to achieve public school desegregation. This collection provides a fairly comprehensive documentation of the pleading of the case of James E. Swann, et al v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education in the district, circuit, and supreme courts and also partially document the out of court preparation and research of Chambers and his assistants.

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Arrangement note

The Julius L. Chambers Papers are divided into the following nine series: 1, PLEADINGS (1964-74), contains copies of the official documents submitted to the courts during the arguing of the case, setting forth the specific arguments, actions, and evidence for both the defendants and the plaintiffs. This is the most extensive series in the collection and gives the most comprehensive view of what was happening in the courts throughout the duration of the suit. Also includes court opinions and orders. Series 2, CORRESPONDENCE (1964-73), highlights the Swann case out of the courtroom, giving some insight into the origin of the case, the preparation and research for the case, and related information on discrimination and desegregation of public educational facilities. Also contains letters from the public, including hate mail. Series 3, CLIPPINGS (1964-72, 1989), documents the desegregation of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School System in 1965 in compliance with the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the subsequent closing of some all black schools; protests, both black and white, to the desegregation plans; the progress of the Swann suit through the courts; and other cases relating to Swann. Series 4, TRANSCRIPTS (1965-74), contains transcripts of depositions, proceedings, and oral examinations, exclusively relating to the District Court. Transcripts relate primarily to the development, implementation, and review of desegregation plans. Series 5, BRIEFS (1970), consists primarily of briefs submitted by the defense and the plaintiffs to both the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court. Included are briefs amici curiae and briefs submitted to the Supreme Court for the cases heard with Swann, e.g., the North Carolina Board of Education v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education (see historical synopsis) Series 6, DESEGREGATION PLANS (1965-70), contains texts of plans drawn up by the Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education (1965) in compliance with the 1964 Civil Rights Act; by educational consultants Larsen, Finger, and Passy (1969) for the plaintiffs; and Finger's plans prepared for the Court (1970). Series 7, RESEARCH MATERIAL AND DATA (1902, 1931-75), is divided into three subseries: Statistics; Publications and Near-Prints Items; and Miscellany. Series 7.1, STATISTICS (1963-75), contains copies of routine statistical reports filed by each school relating to busing and attendance and other miscellaneous statistics relating to desegregation, school budget, enrollment, and transportation. Series 7.2, PUBLICATIONS AND NEAR PRINT ITEMS (1902, 1931, 1946-54, 1965-75), contains copies of articles and other publications and near print materials relating to the status of racial integration in the schools, housing, student transportation, state budget, state and city policy on integration, and other desegregation cases. Also includes some opinion papers by individuals and organizations concerning busing and school desegregation. Series 7.3, MISCELLANY (1954-74), consists of a collection of documents of a diverse subject matter and origin but related to busing and school desegregation and to the Charlotte Mecklenburg school system. Series 8, MAPS (1965-71), contains several maps of attendance areas under various desegregation plans, including the Finger Plan. Also includes city and county maps. Series 9, HANDWRITTEN NOTES (1965-73), contains notes taken presumably by Chambers or his assistants on the Swann case, some apparently during courtroom proceedings.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

J. Murrey Atkins Library Special Collections, UNC Charlotte

9201 University City Blvd.
Charlotte, NC, 28223
704-687-1170
spec-coll@uncc.edu

Revision Description

Finding aid updated by Rebecca Royals, July 1996 1996

Conditions Governing Access note

Collection is open for research.

Conditions Governing Use note

Some material may be copyrighted or restricted. It is the patron's obligation to determine and satisfy copyright or other case restrictions when publishing or otherwise distributing materials found in the collections.

Immediate Source of Acquisition note

Gift of Julius Chambers, 1982.

Processing Information note

Updated by Rebecca Royals, July 1996.

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Related Materials

Related Archival Materials note

Fred D. Alexander Papers (Mss 91). Kelly M. Alexander Papers (Mss 55). Reginald A. Hawkins Papers (Mss 125). Benjamin S. Horack Papers (Mss 42). Margaret W. Ray Papers (Mss 131). William J. Waggoner Papers (Mss 221). James B. McMillan Papers, UNC-Chapel Hill (SHC #4676). Davidson M. Douglas. Reading, Writing & Race: the Desegregation of the Charlotte Schools (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995). Frye Gaillard. The Dream Long Deferred (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988).

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Controlled Access Headings

Personal Name(s)

  • Chambers, Julius L. (Julius LeVonne), 1936-

Subject(s)

  • African Americans--Civil rights--North Carolina
  • African Americans--Education--North Carolina--Charlotte--20th century
  • African Americans--North Carolina
  • Busing for school integration--North Carolina--Charlotte
  • Charlotte (N.C.)--Race relations--20th century
  • Discrimination in education--North Carolina--Charlotte
  • Education--Political aspects--North Carolina--Mecklenburg County

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Collection Inventory

Series 1: PLEADINGS 1964-1974

Scope and Contents note

This series presents a detailed documentation of the specific arguments, actions, and evidence brought forth before the court by both plaintiffs and defendants as well as opinions, orders, and analyses of the Court. These pleadings (copies) consist primarily of documents submitted to the District Court, but also contains some submitted to the Circuit and Supreme Courts. Also included in this series are related letters of transmittal and some pleadings relating to the supplementary case in the North Carolina Superior Court relating to the North Carolina anti busing statute (see historical note); actions of the Board of Education, the plaintiffs, and the Court relating to the preparation of acceptable desegregation plans; and information related to alleged racial bias in application of discipline in the schools.

PLEADINGS (1964-1970 March 12)

Scope and Contents note

Includes powers of attorney (1964-1/1965); opening of the case in U.S. District Court, including a petition to the Board of Education from "Concerned Citizens" protesting segregated schools and the original pleading filed with the Court (1/19/65) by the plaintiffs requesting further desegregation; memorandum of decision (7/14/65) by District Court Judge J. Braxton Craven Jr. approving the Board's 1965 desegregation plan; plaintiffs' appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, including opinion by Circuit Judge Clement F. Haynsworth Jr. (8/24/65) denying injunction requested by plaintiffs for 1965-66 school year; opinion (10/24/66) by Haynsworth upholding the District Court's ruling; case reopening in the District Court, including a copy of the plaintiff's motion for further relief (9/6/68); Judge James McMillan's order (4/23/69) requiring further desegregation of the schools; Board's plan (5/28/69) for desegregation of the schools and various amendments to the plan (7/29, 8/4, and 8/29/69); McMillan's order of 8/15/69 mandating the Board to prepare other plans by making "full use of zoning, pairing, grouping, clustering, transportation, and other techniques" by 11/17/69; Board's request (10/3/69) for an extension of the November, 1969 deadline, and McMillan's denial (10/10/69); McMillan's opinion and analysis (11/7/69) of Swann in light of the Supreme Court's decision on Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education that schools should be desegregated immediately; and Board's plan and (speculatively) supplementary report (11/17/69) for desegregation of the schools; McMillan's opinion and order (12/1/69) on the Board's plan of 11/17/69, outlining guidelines for the preparation of other desegregation plans by both the Board and educational consultant John Finger; and statement to the Court by Board of Education members Coleman Kerry and Julia W. Maulden urging the immediate disposition of the Court's decision.

Box
1
Folder
1-28

PLEADINGS (1970 March 12-1971 June)

Scope and Contents note

Includes supplementary suit (Mrs. Robert E, Moore, et al. v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education) in the North Carolina Superior Court (January April, 1970), including the ruling (4/29/70) in the three judge court that the North Carolina busing statute was unconstitutional [see also boxes 1:24-28, 2:1-12]; and McMillan's order (2/5/70) requiring implementation of the Finger plan; Board's appeal of the District Court's decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit; Circuit Court's decision (4/7/70) approving the District Court's order to implement the Finger plans for the junior and senior high schools, but ordering a new plan prepared for elementary schools; hearings (6/1970) by the District Court on HEW's plan for the elementary schools, including a resolution (6/29/70) by the Board of Education disapproving HEW's plans; appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court; material relating to the Supreme Court's order of 6/29/70 reinstating the District Court's order of 2/5/70, including McMillan's order (8/3/70) discussing the Circuit Court's "test of reasonableness" for the elementary schools and summarizing the case to date; hearings ordered by the Supreme Court (6/29/70) regarding implementation of plans ordered by McMillan's 2/5/70 decision; material (August October, 1970) submitted to the Supreme Court; material on District Court's further direction of the revision and implementation of desegregation plans for school years 1971-72, 1972-73, and 1973-74 [see also boxes 3:26-27, 4:1-3], including information on the feeder plan adopted by the Court and the Board for the 1971-72 school year; and material relating to school construction and its impact on desegregation (3/1971).

Box
2
Folder
1-22

PLEADINGS (1971 July-1973 March)

Scope and Contents note

Includes material relating to compensation for plaintiffs's counsel (1/1972); and information on the desegregation of kindergartens (1973).

Box
3
Folder
1-12

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Series 2: CORRESPONDENCE 1964-1973

Scope and Contents note

This series documents the work of Chambers and his colleagues, particularly of the Legal Defense Fund, in researching, planning, and conducting the pleading of Swann and provides insight into the issues as discussed in the planning stages. Subjects covered include discrimination in the Charlotte schools and elsewhere, affirmative action programs, student transportation and busing, use of federal monies in the school system, and other school desegregation cases, particularly those supported by the Legal Defense Fund (hereinafter LDF). A portion of the correspondence consists of letters from the public, including hate mail and letters of praise, and of routine letters concerning the gathering and presenting of evidence in court.

CORRESPONDENCE 1964-66, 1968-71

Scope and Contents note

Includes letters (9/1964) documenting the efforts of Darius and Vera Swann to enroll James in Seversville School; letter (9/1/64) "to whom it may concern" from Scott Thrower, principal of Seversville School, explaining his denial of the Swann's request; Swann's letter (9/2/64) to the Board outlining reasons for seeking James's transferal; letter (11/23/64) from Chambers to Kelly M. Alexander, Sr. discussing "factors to be considered in an action against the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education to facilitate desegregation"; memorandum (6/27/68) to Chambers from Bob Valder, LDF regional director, giving "report of preliminary information" on the Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education, discussing city ordinances pertaining to segregated facilities from 1887 to 1957; conversations with school board members, in particular, Coleman W. Kerry Jr., concerning pupil assignment policy; the discrepancy between use of federal monies in black and in white schools; discriminatory hiring practices in Charlotte Mecklenburg schools; five year bond program estimates; information on school district lines and problems of discrimination in the Charlotte Mecklenburg system; letter (3/21/69) from Kerry to the Board as "the only Black member," calling for an executive session to "develop our own plan of education that will benefit all of our citizens"; and a letter (6/13/69) from office of HEW giving statistics on school desegregation for eleven southern states and nine northern cities; letter (1/27/70) to Chambers from Harry Golden in which he volunteers to testify in the District Court hearings of (2/2/70); information (1/27, 12/13/70) on the Emergency School Assistance Program (ESEA), under which federal monies were provided for aiding schools in economically disadvantaged areas [considered by the Board and the Court in determining school assignments]; letter (4/7/70) from McMillan to Mordecai Johnson discussing his decision of 2/5/70; note (9/17/70) to Chambers from Jean Cook of the League of Women Voters, transmitting material prepared by the League for its members, discussing busing and giving a synopsis of legal cases precedent to and including Swann; memorandum (10/7/70) to "our contributors" from the NAACP Legal Defense Fund describing Swann and other school desegregation cases supported by the LDF; memoranda (10/7/70) from Jean Fairfax to Jack Greenburg, both of the LDF, describing school desegregation in Birmingham and elsewhere for the 1970-71 school year; letter (5/27/71) from Norman Chachkin to the attorneys with the Swann case discussing the interpretation of racially balanced schools by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals; material relating to discipline of black students in the schools and to disruptions in the schools, including letter (10/14/71) to Chambers describing problems with discrimination in the suspension and discipline of students in the Charlotte Mecklenburg system; and anonymous "position paper" (n.d. 1971) describing school disruptions during the 1970-71 school year.

Box
3
Folder
13-27

CORRESPONDENCE 1972-74, 1976

Scope and Contents note

Includes letter (n.d. 1972) from Robert Shirley to "concerned citizens" describing a legal and educational aid program for black students caught in confrontation with authorities; memorandum (3/20/73) to Bob Valder from Reginald Smith describing violence in the Charlotte Mecklenburg schools in March, 1973; and letter (11/1/72) to William Marsh from Chambers's secretary transmitting an attached decision of the U.S. District Court in Given v. William Poe, et al., in which the defendant was required to set forth rules for non discriminatory school disciplinary proceedings.

Box
4
Folder
1-3

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Series 3: CLIPPINGS 1964-1989

Scope and Contents note

This series contains newspaper clippings primarily from The Charlotte News and The Charlotte Observer that document Swann's passage through the courts. Also documented are the efforts of the Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education to desegregate the schools in 1965 in compliance with the 1964 Civil Rights Act; public reaction to the desegregation plans and to the closing of some all black schools; the initial filing of the Swann suit; related desegregation case in Richmond; and attendance maps for Charlotte-Mecklenburg schools affected by the 4/1/70 redistricting (box 14:6).

Box
4
Folder
6-11

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Series 4: TRANSCRIPTS 1965-1974

Scope and Contents note

This series contains transcripts (copies) of proceedings, depositions, and oral examinations prepared exclusively for or in the District Court. The depositions and oral examinations were taken out of court and are primarily interviews with School Board representatives and employees concerning the development, implementation, and review of desegregation plans.

TRANSCRIPTS 1965-1970

Box
4
Folder
12-23

TRANSCRIPTS 1970-1974

Box
5
Folder
1-20

TRANSCRIPTS 1974

Scope and Contents note

includes proceedings (4/16/74 [v.5).

Box
6
Folder
1

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Series 5: BRIEFS 1970

Scope and Contents note

This series contains briefs submitted on appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals and to the U.S. Supreme Court. Included are briefs amici curiae and briefs submitted to the Supreme Court for cases heard with Swann, including the supplementary suit involving the North Carolina anti busing statute.

Box
6
Folder
2-18

U.S. COURT OF APPEALS, FOURTH CIRCUIT

Box
6
Folder
2-13

U.S. SUPREME COURT

Box
6
Folder
14-18

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Series 6: DESEGREGATION PLANS 1965-1970

Scope and Contents note

This series consists of texts of plans developed to desegregate the Charlotte Mecklenburg schools (see also series 1, Pleadings; series 8, Maps).

PLANS 1965-1970

Scope and Contents note

Includes a plan adopted 3-11-65 and the "Plan for Compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964" (4/15/65); the "Tentative Plan for Integration of the Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools" (5/1969) submitted in compliance with court order of 4/23/69 (see also Pleadings); "The Charlotte Mecklenburg School System Analysis and Recommendations" (1/1969) prepared by consultants Jack Larsen, John Finger, and Robert Passy for the plaintiffs; and the "Report of the Consultant to the Federal District Court" (2/1969), prepared by Finger under orders of the District Court (12/1/69). Contains plans approved by McMillan for the school year 1970-71. Does not include maps.

Box
6
Folder
19-22

PLANS 1965-1970

Scope and Contents note

Includes the "Amended Plan for School Desegregation" (7/1969) labeled "for discussion only," which includes a statement by the School Board upon submission of the plan explaining the plan and asking for community support; HEW's plan for desegregation of elementary schools (6/26/70), developed under order of the District Court after the Circuit Court remanded Finger's elementary plan back to the District Court, reversing the District Court's order for the elementary grades; the Board minority report (ca. 1970) proposing that the Board take additional steps toward desegregation.

Box
7
Folder
1-5

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Series 7: RESEARCH MATERIAL AND DATA 1902-1975

Scope and Contents note

This series contains information pertaining to desegregation, busing and student transportation, and other issues related to the Swann case. Divided into three subseries: Statistics, Publications and Near Print Material, and Miscellany.

SubSeries 7.1: STATISTICS 1963-1975

BUS STATISTICS 1964-1969

Box
7
Folder
6

MISCELLANY 1963-75, undated

Scope and Contents note

Regarding status of desegregation, pupil assignment, transportation data, budget information, and information on school facilities; and card file listing each school and its racial makeup.

Box
7
Folder
7-12

PRINCIPAL'S MONTHLY BUS REPORTS 1967-1970

Scope and Contents note

Tabulating information on bus drivers, mileage of routes, and number of pupils transported.

Box
7
Folder
13-19

PRINCIPAL'S MONTHLY REPORTS 1970-1971

Scope and Contents note

Prepared by each school, giving information on numbers of pupils per grade, attendance information, special programs and curriculum.

Box
7
Folder
20-24

SCHOOL PRELIMINARY REPORTS (1968 September 23)

Scope and Contents note

Filed upon completion of the tenth day of school each year. Contains information on enrollment, staffing, opening and closing times, and curriculum.

Box
7
Folder
25-27

SCHOOL PRELIMINARY REPORTS (1968 September 23-1970 November)

Box
8
Folder
1-16

TRANSPORTATION REPORTS 1964-1968

Scope and Contents note

Giving annual data on equipment, miles and race of students bused, and drivers' salaries.

Box
8
Folder
17

SubSeries 7.2: PUBLICATIONS AND NEAR PRINT MATERIAL 1902, 1931, 1946-1954, 1965-1975

Scope and Contents note

This subseries contains copies of articles and position papers relating primarily to desegregation of education, discrimination, housing, and pupil assignment and transportation. Also includes federal, state, and local documents, such as the Code of the City of Charlotte (1902-54) the Charlotte Mecklenburg School System budget (1969-70) and the North Carolina state budget. Arranged alphabetically.

PUBLICATIONS--A-R

Scope and Contents note

Includes Advance Legislative Service Bulletin #8 (1969); Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools Directory (1968-69); Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools Revised Budget (1969-70); and the Code for the City of Charlotte (1902, 1931, 1946-54); Congressional Record (2/8/70): 2652-53; "Disciplinary Proceedings in the Public Schools," Laughlin McDonald (n.d.); "Elementary and Secondary Education," Robert E. Phay, Popular Government (9/1969), pp. 39-48; "Factual Analysis Five Year Bond Program Estimates, Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools, 1967-72," (1/16/67); Federal Reporter, 2nd Series, pp. 808-11; Federal State Relations Newsletter (7/2/73); "General Assembly Adopts Pearsall Plan in Special Session," Philip Green, Popular Government (n.d.); Handbook for Use in Preparing Occupational Educational Programs, North Carolina Department of Public Instruction (n.d.); and Keeping Southern Railway in Charlotte's Future, Southern Railway System (n.d.); Mecklenburg County Budget (1969 70); NEA Research Bulletin (10/1969); North Carolina Biennial Report, Superintendent of Public Instruction (1966 68); North Carolina Public Schools (1/1970); North Carolina Public School System Supplemental Financial Report: ESEA and Head Start (1968-68); The North Carolina Researcher (7/1970); "On the Matter of Busing A Staff Memorandum from the Center for Urban Education," by Barbara R. Fogel (2/1970); "Policies on Elementary and Secondary School Compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964." HEW (3/1968); Population Projections for North Carolina Counties (1980); "The Primary Markets for Quality Merchandise," The New Yorker (1966); Profile, North Carolina Counties, Statistical Services Center, North Carolina Department of Administration (12/1968); Pupil Assignment Study, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, Administrative Staff (3/6/73); "Race and Place," Meyer Weinberger, HEW Office of Education (1967); "Racial Isolation in the Public Schools," U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (3/1967); and Report of the Governor's Study Commission on the Public School System of North Carolina (n.d.).

Box
8
Folder
18-22

PUBLICATIONS--S-Z

Scope and Contents note

Includes "The Scattered Housing Program," Housing Authority of Charlotte (1975); School Committee Report, League of Women Voters, January (1970); "Statement of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Concerning the 'Statement by the President on Elementary and Secondary School Desegregation,'" (1970); Statistics on Pupil Transportation (1967-68), National Commission on Safety Education and National Education; Summary of the State Budget for the (1969-71) Biennium, State of North Carolina; and "A True Alternative to Segregation A Proposal for Community School Districts," Congress of Racial Equality (2/1970); Zoning Ordinance, Charlotte (1965).

Box
9
Folder
1-2

SubSeries 7.3: MISCELLANY 1954-1974

Scope and Contents note

This subseries contains a collection of documents of a diverse subject matter and origin relating to desegregation, pupil assignment and transportation, and the Charlotte Mecklenburg school system. MISCELLANY (1954-74, n.d.): includes "Facts about the Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools" (1/20/69), a 6 page summary; synopsis (3/6/69) by the Model Neighborhood Education Liaison Committee of various school desegregation plans used nationwide; and a copy of North Carolina House Bill 990 (5/7/69), "An Act to Protect the Neighborhood School System and to Prohibit the Involuntary Busing of Pupils Outside the District in Which They Reside." This act, later G.S. 115-176.1, was the basis for the supplementary suit in the North Carolina Superior Court and later the U.S. Supreme Court (see Historical Synopsis). Includes amendment (7/1/69); news release (n.d.) from Governor Robert Scott stating that he would not permit public funds to be used for busing; racial demographic analysis (ca. 1970) of Charlotte; information (1970-71) on disciplinary procedures, suspension and expulsion guidelines, disturbances, disorders, and demonstrations; and statement before Subcommittee #5 of the Committee on the Judiciary of the U.S. House of Representatives (5/18/72) by T. M. Martin, Walter McDaniel, and Arthur Lynch, representing black parents and children of Charlotte.

Box
9
Folder
3-12

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Series 8: MAPS 1965-1971

Scope and Contents note

This series contains primarily attendance maps prepared by the Board of Education on 3/11/65 (rev. 8/15/69) and on 1/30/70 to accompany their desegregation plans. (See also series 1, Pleadings; series 3, Clippings, box 14:6; and series 6, Desegregation Plans.) Also contains Finger plan map adjusted for feeder plan (6/24/71); and maps of Charlotte and of Mecklenburg County.

ATTENDANCE--ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

Map-case
MC1.10
Folder
2

ATTENDANCE--JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Map-case
MC1.10
Folder
3

ATTENDANCE--SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Map-case
MC1.1
Folder
4

CHARLOTTE AND MECKLENBURG COUNTY

Map-case
MC1.10
Folder
1

FINGER PLAN

Map-case
MC1.10
Folder
1

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Series 9: HANDWRITTEN NOTES 1965-1973

Scope and Contents note

This series is comprised of notes taken presumably by Chambers and/or others working with Swann. Some notes are apparently taken in the courtroom.

Box
9
Folder
13-18

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